A wide range of engines has been used experimentally and in automotive production. The most successful for automobiles has been the gasoline-fueled reciprocating-piston internal-combustion engine, operating on a four-stroke cycle, while diesel engines are widely used for trucks and buses. The gasoline engine was originally selected for automobiles because it could operate more flexibly over a wide range of speeds, and the power developed for a given weight engine was reasonable; it could be produced by economical mass-production methods; and it used a readily available, moderately priced fuel. Reliability, compact size, exhaust emissions, and range of operation later became important factors.
here has been an ongoing reassessment of these priorities with new emphasis on the reduction of greenhouse gases (see greenhouse effect) or pollution-producing characteristics of automotive power systems. This has created new interest in alternate power sources and internal-combustion engine refinements that previously were not close to being economically feasible. Several limited-production battery-powered electric vehicles are marketed today. In the past they had not proved to be competitive, because of costs and operating characteristics. The gasoline engine, with new emission-control devices to improve emission performance, has been challenged in recent years by hybrid power systems that combine gasoline or diesel engines with