The evolution of higher-performance engines in the United States led the industry away from long, straight engine cylinder layouts to compact six- and eight-cylinder V-type layouts for larger cars (with horsepower ratings up to about 350). Smaller cars depend on smaller four-cylinder engines. European automobile engines were of a much wider variety, ranging from 1 to 12 cylinders, with corresponding differences in overall size, weight, piston displacement, and cylinder bores. A majority of the models had four cylinders and horsepower ratings up to 120. Most engines had straight or in-line cylinders. There were, however, several V-type models and horizontally opposed two- and four-cylinder makes. Overhead camshafts were frequently employed. The smaller engines were commonly air-cooled and located at the rear of the vehicle; compression ratios were relatively low. Increased interest in improved fuel economy brought a return to smaller V-6 and four-cylinder layouts, with as many as five valves per cylinder to improve efficiency. Variable valve timing to improve performance and lower emissions has been achieved by manufacturers in all parts of the world. Electronic controls automatically select the better of two profiles on the same cam for higher efficiency when engine speeds and loads change.
3 weeks ago Learning Islamabad 30 views