These outstanding technical advancements are not made without economic consequences. According to a study by Ward’s Communications Incorporated, the average cost for a new American car increased $4,700 (in terms of the value of the dollar in 2000) between 1980 and 2001 because of mandated safety and emission-control performance requirements (such as the addition of air bags and catalytic converters). New requirements continued to be implemented in subsequent years. The addition of computer technology was another factor driving up car prices, which increased by 29 percent between 2009 and 2019. This is in addition to the consumer costs associated with engineering'
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improvements in fuel economy, which may be offset by reduced fuel purchases.